Mechanisms Behind Cell Metabolism in Response to Breast Cancer Drugs

Mechanisms Behind Cell Metabolism in Response to Breast Cancer Drugs
shutterstock_190643873In a new study entitled “Regulation of Glutamine Carrier Proteins by RNF5 Determines Breast Cancer Response to ER Stress-Inducing Chemotherapies” researchers discovered a factor, the ubiquitin ligase RNF5, that regulates the levels of glutamine, an essential nutrient for cancer cells that determines how cancer cells respond to anticancer therapies. The study was published in the journal Cancer Cell. The mechanism of how cancer cells induce gluthamine uptake is still unclear. In this study, the authors identified how two glutamine carrier proteins, SLC1A5 and SLC38A2, are regulated and how this impacts gluthamine uptake. The team of scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute discovered that both gluthamine carrier proteins are targeted by the ubiquitin ligase RNF5 – a critical player of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response – a pathway activated when there is accumulation of misfolded proteins inside the cell. RNF5, an ER-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulates proteins' stability and contributes to misfiled protein clearance. Notably, RNF5 activity is increased in advanced cases of breast cancer. In this study the authors treated
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